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Work shiftmeans being in the same work location, both at the same time or at different times (Nurmianto, 2008). The reason why shift workexist is because there are needs need to be fulfilled for 24hours/day, 7days/week. Working in shift can be regulated in many way, the common way is by dividing 24 hours into 3 shift with the same duration. In England and Europe, work shift divided into:
- Morning shift (00 – 14.00)
- Afternoon shift (14.00 – 20.00)
- Night shift (20.00 – 06.00).
According to Nurmianto (2008), in designing a good work shift, there are 5 criteria need to pay attention to:
- At least has 11 hours difference between two beginnings of a consecutive shift
- A worker should not work more than 7 days consecutively (the recommendation is 5 work days and 2 off days)
- Provide weekend holiday (at least 2 days)
- Shift rotation follows the sun
- Make a simple schedule and easy to remember.
Night Shift Application
There are some solutions in determining work shift proposed (Parkieser, 2013):
- Make the changes of shift less, so the worker can easier to adapt with the shift
- Know the workers who tolerate night shift
- Put young workers on night shift
- Make the workers comfortable with the job
- Avoid the bright light exposure. Bright light exposure can cause damage to skin, cornea, and eye lens
- Don’t give a worker night shift for 3 days consecutively (for rotation shift)
- Avoid workers from doing the job when they’re tired
- Provide break time for night shift worker
- Give facility to night shift worker which excites them
- Lessen the rotation shift and provide more permanent workers on night shift
Effect of Night Shift to Workers’ Physical Condition
According to Drenth, Thierry, andWolf (2013), the most common problem from night shift workers is because they have got less sleeping time than the other workers. Night shift may cause problems, such as:
- Trouble sleeping
- Heart disease
- High blood pressure
- Gastrointestinal disruption
Work Shift Comparison
The advantages of morning shift:
- Looks normal working in the morning shift.
- Healthier because suitable with circadian rhythm.
- Usually the worker has a good social relationship with family and society.
The advantages of nightshift:
- Could done things except working in not busy hours (shopping or to the hospital) which could save time to queue.
- Some jobs give bigger salary to night shift worker with the same period of working hours.
- Could take care of family (child) alternately with partner.
The disadvantages of morning shift:
- Could only do things outside working hours (night or holiday) and need more time to queue because people usually work in morning shift.
The disadvantages of night shift:
- Not suitable with circadian rhythm (sleep at night and work at morning).
- Lessen the time to interact with family because they need to rest in the noon.
- Lessen the social interaction.
“Circadian” was came from a Latin word circa which means approximately and dies which means day, so circadian means approximately one day. Circadian rhythm works like a clock to adjust sleeping time, working readiness, metabolism, heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature (Nurmianto, 2008).
International Standard for Night Shift Workers
According to the 77th conference in Geneva discuss about the international standard for night shift workers, which generate The Night Work Convention and Recommendation. Here is the table showing the recommendations for night shift workers:
|1||Normal work hours||Not more than 8 hours/day|
|2||Overtime||No work shift that is full consecutively|
|3||Rest Time||At least 11 hours between shifts|
|4||Break Time||Break for lunch and rest|
|5||Mother/Prospective Mother||Working hours on noon (before and after the gestation)|
|6||Social services||Transportation time limit, cost and safety improvements, rest quality improvement|
|7||Special condition||Tolerance to workers who has responsible to the family, disabilities workers|
|8||Training||Got the chance for training|
|9||Transfer||Special consideration to have morning shift (after years having night shift work)|
|10||Pension||Special consideration for workers who is pension before the time|
Work Shift Recommendation
According toGrandjean (1986), in ordering the schedule for work shift, it is needed to consider these aspects:
- Night shift worker should in the age of 25-50 years old.
- Workers who have stomach and intestine issues and unstable emotion should not be placed in night shift.
- Workers who lived far from the workplace should not be placed in night shift.
- Shifting system 3 rotation 6-14-22 changed into 7-15-23 or 8-16-24.
- Short rotations are better than long rotations and avoid repetition on night working shift.
- Follow the rotation 2-2-2 (metropolitan pattern) or 2-2-3 (continental pattern).
- Night working shift for 3 consecutive days should be followed by rest at least 24 hours.
- On scheduling the work shift, make sure that the weekend is holiday for 2 consecutive days.
- Every shift provide one break time which is possible for workers to eat.
Regulations in Indonesia
According to Employment LawNo. 13 Year 2003 Article 77 clause 2:
The working hours as mentioned under subsection (1) cover:
- 7 (seven) hours a dayand 40 (forty) hours a week for 6 (six) workdaysin a week; or
- 8 (eight) hours a dayand 40 (forty) hours a week for 5 (five) workdaysin a week.
According to Employment Law No. 13 Year 2003 Article 78 clause 1b – 2:
Maximum overtime work of 3 (three) hoursin a day and 14 (fourteen) hoursin a week. Entrepreneurs whore quire their workers/labourers to work overtime as mentioned undersubsection (1) are under an obligation to pas overtime pay.
According to Employment LawNo. 13 Year 2003 Article 79clause 2:
The period of restand leave as mentioned undersubsection (1) shall include:
- The period of rest between working hours at least half an hour after working for 4 (four) hours consecutively and this period of rest shall not be inclusive of working
- The weekly period of restis 1 (one) day after 6 (six) workday sin a weekor 2 (two) days after 5 (five) workdays in a week.
- The yearly period of rest is 12 (twelve) workdays after the worker/labourer works for 12 (twelve) months consecutively; and
- A long period of rest of no less than 2 (two) months, which shall be awarded in the seventh and eighth year of work each for a period of 1 (one) month to workers/labourers who have been working for 6 (six) years consecutively at the same enterprise on the condition that the said workers/labourers will no longer been titled to their annual period of rest in 2 (two) current years. This provision shall henceforth be applicable every 6 (six) years of work.
According to Employment Law No. 13 Year 2003 Article 82clause 1:
Female workers/ labourers are entitled to a 1.5 (one-and-a-half ) month period of rest before the time at which they are estimated by an obstetrician or a midwife to give birth to a baby and another 1.5 (one-and-a-half ) month period of rest there after.
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