The Role of Industrial Engineering in Waste Management in the Construction of the New State Capital of Indonesia

The Role of Industrial Engineering in Waste Management in the Construction of the New State Capital of Indonesia
By Chiello Prasetya

The Indonesian government has announced plans to build a new national capital in the province of East Kalimantan. Relocating the national capital will certainly bring many challenges that must be faced so that development can be completed properly and efficiently. Waste generated from infrastructure development is one of the problems that must be resolved. Good waste management is needed to protect the environment and public health around the development area so as to avoid environmental pollution. Industrial engineering in this case can play a role in designing a waste management system that is safe, efficient, and environmentally friendly.

A. The Role of Industrial Engineering in Waste Management

1. Planning and Designing a Waste Treatment System

Industrial engineering can play a role in matters related to site selection, technology planning, and waste processing infrastructure, as well as the design of collection and transportation systems that will be used to transport waste.

2. Implementing and Developing Waste Treatment Technology Innovations

In addition, industrial engineering can also help think about the implementation of waste management technologies that can be applied in the new national capital. One example of technology that has been used for wastewater treatment is the moving bed biofilm  reactor  (MBBR).  MBBR technology treats waste with an aeration system that increases oxygen levels in the water. Meanwhile, in terms of developing innovation, an industrial engineer can help develop a waste management system through applications.

3. Monitor Environmental Quality Control

Industrial engineering can play a role in monitoring the quality of the environment around the new national capital development area. Monitoring is carried out by measuring the quality of water, soil, and air produced to avoid waste pollution.

4. Provide Training

Training can be carried out by holding socialization through the delivery of information related to how to sort and dispose of waste properly, the impact of waste on the environment and health, and the benefits of good waste management. In addition, cooperation can also be carried out with related parties such as government agencies and environmental organizations that can provide education related to waste management.

B. Steps to Manage Development Waste in the New State Capital in Kalimantan

1. Identifying Waste Sources

The first step in treating construction waste is to identify the source of the waste produced. Waste can come from various kinds of construction activities such as the building process, excavation, and tree cutting. The generated waste can be classified as B3 waste or not.

2. Waste Transportation

The next step is to transport the treated waste to a temporary storage area. The waste transportation system must be carried out following predetermined operational standards so that the waste carried can reach its destination properly and that environmental and community safety can also be maintained.

3. Temporary Storage

Waste transported to the storage area will be grouped according to its type to facilitate further processing. The waste storage area has also been specifically designed according to the type of waste produced to facilitate the recycling process. In general, waste can be divided into several forms, namely solid waste, liquid waste, and gaseous waste.

4. Waste Treatment

Furthermore, the stored waste will go through several processing processes both biologically, physically, chemically, thermally, and electrochemically.

5. Final Disposal Site

The treated waste will be disposed of at the final disposal site (TPA). While the waste that has been recycled can be reused for special purposes, for example for animal feed, compost, and other purposes.

C. Following the example of Singapore in the Solid Waste Management Process

Technology in the 20th century has penetrated into all aspects of human life, including technology to deal with solid waste. There are several technologies for solid waste treatment, depending on the type of waste being treated. Each type of technology also has its own level, from simple technology to modern technology. The choice of the type of solid waste treatment technology in a country is influenced by financial capabilities, human resources, and local environmental conditions. Singapore chose a modern type of waste processing technology based on good economic capabilities and human resources.

Singapore has a more complex and modern waste management system than the big cities in Indonesia. The system involves the collection, compaction, transport, incineration, and disposal of ash in a specially constructed landfill in the middle of the sea. In addition, the heat generated from burning waste is used to generate electricity. Unfortunately, the implementation of this system requires large costs in terms of construction, operation, and maintenance of facilities.

Solid waste in Singapore is divided into two major groups: general solid waste and non- general solid waste. The general solid waste consists of organic, inorganic, sludge, and processed solid waste, while non-general solid waste is waste that is toxic and dangerous. General solid waste is classified into two types: waste that can be burned in incinerators and waste that cannot or should not be burned. Non-common solid waste is handled specifically from collection, transportation, to disposal because it is toxic and dangerous. Management of non-general solid waste is carried out carefully for the safety of society and the environment.

Solid waste collection in Singapore is carried out by either direct, indirect, or pneumatic systems. The direct collection method is carried out by collecting waste from house to house using a compactor truck which can automatically spill waste from its container into the truck, then the waste is immediately compacted so that the volume is reduced and the truck’s carrying capacity increases. Indirect collection methods include centralized collection points and centralized refuse chutes, which are carried out for apartments, settlements, or high-rise buildings and will be transported using covered trucks to waste collection points. Meanwhile, pneumatic refuse transport systems are carried out by transporting waste through underground pipelines by sucking it with a vacuum pump to a waste collection center.

After the waste is collected, the waste will be transported to the lever waste port or commonly known as an incinerator plant. Currently, Singapore has four incinerators with large capacity and modern technology. The solid waste incineration process begins by bringing the waste to the incinerator plant and storing it in a bunker to ensure the continuity of the incinerator operation. Bulky waste is chopped and mixed with other waste before being transferred to the furnace through the inlet using an excavator. At first, fuel oil was used to trigger combustion through a flame trigger, but after the furnace temperature stabilized, fuel oil was no longer needed. The remaining ash from burning waste will be sold as scrap and sent to the waste port by ship. While the steam generated from the heater will flow to the turbine to be used as a power plant.

There are various kinds of opportunities and roles that industrial engineering graduates can play in the development of the capital city of Indonesia. Industrial engineering can assist in designing a sewage treatment system by utilizing the latest technology. In designing a waste treatment system, special knowledge is needed regarding proper and correct waste treatment steps, including identifying the source of waste, the transportation used, the place for storing/disposing of waste, and the process to be used. The application of a waste treatment system can also pay attention to aspects related to the principles of reducing, reusing, and recycling. In addition, we can also follow the example of waste management from Singapore. Waste management measures in the country of Singapore include collection, compaction, transportation, burning, and disposal of ashes in a landfill in the middle of the sea. Despite using expensive technology, Singapore can manage waste well and utilize waste treatment processes for specific purposes such as producing scrap metal and a source of electricity. The correct waste management system will generate several benefits and have a good impact on the environment around the development of the Indonesian capital city.

REFERENCES: circular-economy/ untuk-ikn-nusantara